Activin A in Carcinoid Heart Disease: A Possible Role in Diagnosis and Pathogenesis
Introduction: Carcinoid heart disease (CHD), a complication of NETs, is characterized by right heart fibrotic lesions. In addition to serotonin, cytokines and growth factors with fibrogenic properties may play a role.
Aim(s): We sought to examine the relationship between plasma levels of fibrogenic cytokines and growth factors and CHD, to provide further insight into possible biomarkers of CHD and into the pathogenesis of CHD.
Materials and methods: Plasma samples from 71 NET patients and 18 controls were analyzed using enzyme immunoassays. All patients underwent echocardiography. Tumor biopsies and a CHD lesion were analyzed via IHC.
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